LESSON 7. THE ORIGINS

Стр. 185 упр. 1

Famous people of Belarus are at these pictures: Francis Skaryna (the first Belarusian publisher), Maksim Bogdanovich ( a Belarusian poet), Euphro-syne of Polatsk (one of the 15 patron saints of Belarus).

Стр. 182 упр. 2 a)

1, — с
2, — a
3, — b

Стр. 189 упр. 4 a)

A. — FS
B. — EP
C. — MB
D. — EP
E. — MB
F. — EP
G. — MB
H. — EP
I. — FS
J. — MB
K. — FS
L. — MB
M. — EP
N. — MB
O. — FS

Стр. 189 упр. 5 a)

Lev Sapega
A political and military figure, the Hetman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a diplomat, a philosopher. One of the main founders of the Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1588), which was actually the first European Constitution.

Tadeusz Kosciuszko
Born in Belarus in 1746, Kosciuszko is considered a national hero in America, Belarus and Poland for his leadership in the American Revolutionary War and the uprising against Imperial Russia and the Prussian Empire in 1794.

Famous scientists from Belarus:

Ignat Domejko
Born in Belarus in 1802. Domejko was a well-known geologist who spent most of his life in Chile where he became a national hero. He is officially recognised by UNESCO for his achievements.

Ivan (Yan) Chersky
An outstanding geographer, a geologist, a famous explorer of Siberia, whose name was given to numerous geographical places. Born in 1845, in the Svolna Estate, Vitebsk Province.

Nikolai Sudzilovsky (Nicholas Russell)
An ethnographer, a geographer, a chemist, a biologist, a genetic doctor, the first president of the Hawaii State Senate. Born to an impoverished noble family in 1850 in Mogilev. From 1892 Nikolai lived in Hawaii where he fought for the rights of the locals.

Alexander Chizhevsky
Born in the Grodno region in 1897, Chizhevsky was an acclaimed scientist who studied the biological effects of the sun and universe, including how solar activity maps to periods of war throughout history.

Sofia Kovalevskaya
The first female Professor of Mathematics, descended from the Belarusian noble family. She spent her childhood in the Palibino Estate, Vitebsk Province. At the age of 18 Sofia entered into a fictive marriage to move abroad and to do science. Sofia Kovalevskaya is the author of numerous papers on mathematical analysis, mechanics and astronomy.

Pavel Sukhoi
An aerospace engineer, an inventor, one of the creators of supersonic jets, a designer of more than 50 original aircraft solutions, more than 30 of which have been constructed and tested. Born in 1895, in the town of Glubo-koye, Vitebsk Region.

Zhores Alf erov
Born in Vitebsk in 1930, Alferov won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2000.

Famous cosmonauts from Belarus:

Petr Klimuk
Petr Klimuk, the first Belarusian cosmonaut; a researcher in technical sciences; twice Hero of the Soviet Union. Born in Komarovka village, Brest region, in 1942. Made three space flights as a member of spaceship and orbital space station missions. Spent a total of 78.76 days in space.

Vladimir Kovalenok
Born near Minsk in 1942, Kovalenok trained as a pilot and became a celebrated cosmonaut in the Soviet Union. He commanded 3 space missions and was twice declared a Hero of the Soviet Union.

Belarusians from the arts:

Marc Chagall
Perhaps the most famous of all people from Belarus, Marc Chagall is known around the world as a master of classic avant-garde art.

Napoleon Orda
A painter, a composer. Napoleon Orda was born in the village of Vorocevi-chi, Pinsk Uyezd (District). Napoleon Orda made more than 1,000 sketches of the buildings in Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, France, which has become a priceless source of information for architects and restorers in Europe. In 2007, Napoleon Orda's 200th anniversary was added to the UNESCO Memorial Calendar List.

Ivan Khrutsky
Born in the village of Ulla, Lepel Uyezd (District), Vitebsk Province. A distinguished painter known for his own painting style, a mixture of still lives and portraits. Ivan Khrutsky's 200th anniversary was inscribed into the UNESCO Memorial Calendar List in 2010.

Louis Burt Mayer
Born in Minsk in 1885. Cinematographer Luis Bart Mayer is best known as one of founders of the Hollywood film studio "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer".

Famous politicians from Belarus:

Chaim Wiezman
Born in Belarus in the village Motol (nowadays — Ivanovo district, Brest region) in 1874. Haim Weizman was an outstanding chemist who gave lectures in Switzerland and Great Britain. As an active Zionist he was selected as a first president of Israel (1949) and remained at this post until his death (1952).

Andrei Gromyko
A diplomat, the USSR Minister of Foreign Affairs (1957 - 1985). Head of the Soviet delegation at a UN founding conference which worked out the UN Charter. Born in the village of Starye Gromyki (Vetka District, Gomel Region).

Sporting heroes from Belarus:

Alexander Medved
Belarusian sportsman and trainer (freestyle wrestling). Olympic Champion (1964, 1968, 1972) and World Champion (1962, 1963, 1966, 1967, 1969-1971). He is recognised as the best freestyle wrestler of the XX century.

Olga Korbut
The legendary gymnast won 4 Olympic Gold medals (three of them at the Olympic Games in Munich in 1972). In 1972 Korbut was named Best Sportswoman in the World.

Vitaly Shcherbo
A Belarusian sportsman (artistic gymnastics). Gold medal winner at the XXV Olympic Games (Spain, 1992). The bronze medal winner at the XXVI Olympic Games (USA, 1996). World Champion 14 times, European Champion 10 times. Winner of the Good-will games (USA, 1990). Champion of Univer-sidad (1993,1995).

Igor Makarov
Makarov won a gold medal in judo at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.

Julia Nesterenko
Nesterenko won the 100 metres gold medal at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.

Maxim Mirnyi
Maxim Mirnyi is the most famous Belarusian tennis player. He has won a series of international doubles titles and has led the Belarus national team to its best-ever result in the Davis Cup.

Victoria Azarenka
Women's Tennis Association (WTA) World No. 1, September 2012.

Darya Domracheva
The bronze medalist in the women's 15km individual race at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver. The winner of the Biathlon Award 2010 (Female Athlete of the Year).

Alexei Grishin
A freestyle skier, the winner of Belarus's first gold Winter Olympics medal (Vancouver 2010). The Olympic bronze medalist (Salt Lake City 2002).

Sergei Martynov
"The king of small-bore rifle", the London 2012 champion, two-time Olympic bronze medalist in Sydney and Athens, the world record setter: scored the maximum 600 points in prone rifle shooting.

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