LESSON 3. DEFORESTATION
Стр. 68, упр. 1 a)
I have a lot of things made from trees at home such as wall-unite, kitchen table and chairs, windowsills, wardrobe, chest-of-draws etc.
Стр. 69, упр. 1 с)
The rainforests are a rare ecosystem that originally covered only 2 percent of the world's surface. The rainforests also have the greatest quantity of living matter per square acre of any other terrestrial ecosystem, having in excess of 1,000 tons of biomass per hectare. It is an extremely threatened ecosystem. In the United States only 5 percent of the native rainforest remains, while in British Columbia and Chile close to 40 percent have been preserved. The list of dangers rainforests face:
The number one threat to the rainforest is logging. Logging companies covet rain forest trees because they are significantly larger than trees that grow in other parts of the world, and so have a higher dollar value per log. Trees grow larger both because the leaf matter on the ground is thick and replenishes the nutrients in the soil and because water in plentiful. According to Project WILD, modern logging techniques destroy temperate forests at a rate equal to 10 soccer fields every half hour. Logged trees are used to make pencils, paper products and lumber for building.
2. Clear Cutting.
Clear cutting was responsible for the destruction of much of the rainforest that once spanned across the United States. Clear cutting is when all of the trees are removed from the land, leaving open field. This was done in the American Midwest to make way for agricultural development, expansion of mining and commercial building.
3. Air Pollution.
Air pollution damages trees, making them less able to grow and reproduce. Specifically, air pollution mixes with the moisture in the air and causes acid rain, which chemically damages the foliage and fruit at the top of the tree's canopy. Leaves that are damaged cannot effectively complete photosynthesis, so the plant is less capable of making its own food. Fruit that is damaged may not be able to complete its reproductive cycle. Acid erosion of the plant's tissues leave it more susceptible to fungal infection, frost and pests.
Fires caused by lightening are natural, and are an important conservation element. They clean out the forest in a health and natural way. Unfortunately, the number of forest fires caused by man's carelessness is ever increasing. These fires burn off young trees and inhibit the forest's ability to naturally repopulate.
5. Human Encroachment.
Humans cause a number of other threats the rainforest as well. Hydroelectric projects cause the forest to be flooded with water kept behind damns. Poaching damages the diversity of species living in the forest. Non-native plant and animal species are introduced, creating an unhealthy competition for resources and introducing diseases that the natural inhabitants have no resistance to. All of these acts disrupt the delicate balance of the rain forest ecosystem.
Стр. 70, упр. 2 b) Listening.
Стр. 70, упр. 2 с)
a) rate, b) lungs, c) breathe, d) breath, e) crops, f) soil, g) planted, h) infertile.
Стр. 72, упр. 3 a)
1. If the habitat for wildlife hadn't been lost, hunting wouldn't have become more difficult for the local people and their cultures wouldn't have lost. — The habitat for wildlife is lost. As the result, hunting has become more difficult for local people and their cultures have been lost.
2. If a mixture of different crops and trees had been planted together, the soils would have stayed fertile. — A mixture of different crops and trees are not planted together. As the result, the soils stay infertile.
3. And if wildlife reserves had been set up, more money could have been made through tourism. — Wildlife reserves are not set up. As the result, money can't be made through tourism.
Стр. 72, упр. 3 b)
1. — A, 2. — D, 3. — E, 4. — C, 5 — B.
Стр. 72, упр. 4 а)
Today, more than two-thirds of the world's tropical rainforests exist only as fragmented remnants. Industrial agribusiness, resource extraction, poor governance, illegal logging and the failure to recognize and respect the rights of forest peoples as well as global warming all threaten the continued existence of our planet's lungs (here's a great resource on threats facing the world's rainforests). It's as if humans have been on a smoking bender for a few hundred years, and, in spite of advanced lung cancer, we just can't stop ourselves from smoking that next pack.
North America and Europe are responsible for a large part of the consumer demand that drives rainforest destruction — which also means we can do something about it. Here's my effort to offer the most important steps you can take to stand with RAN in protecting the world's rainforests. This is by no means a comprehensive list, but these are my favorites. Please share your solutions as well!
1. Become a Rainforest Lover.
Perhaps the most important step to protecting our rainforests is falling in love with them. Educate yourself, your family and your friends about the beauty and remarkable importance of these ecosystems. Right now forest destruction is more profitable than forest protection. You can change that, and a great place to start is arming yourself with the facts. One of the best repositories of rainforest stories and facts is Mongabay.com. I would recommend starting your love affair with rainforests there.
2. Support Rainforest Safe Books and Paper.
Pulp from cleared rainforests is made into cheap copy paper, books, tissue and toilet paper and luxury shopping bags that are then sold to consumers in the United States, Europe and Asia. But it doesn't need to be this way. Top U.S. publishers are taking a stand and demanding rainforest safe paper, but they need your help. Here is a guide to rainforest-safe publishers and books so that you can support those companies that are doing their part and pressure the rest to shape up.
3. Stop Destruction of Rainforests for Palm Oil.
Believe it or not, palm oil is found in half of all packaged goods in the US — everything from cereal, cooking oil and candy bars to lipstick and soap — and its cultivation is one of the key causes of deforestation. Concerned customers have pushed companies like General Mills, Unilever and Nestle (to name just a few) to commit to source only responsible palm oil. Now it's Cargill's turn! As the company that buys more palm oil than any other company in the U.S., Cargill can make a big difference if they choose not to buy palm oil that hurts rainforests. Let Cargill know you care.
4. Fundraise for Forest Peoples .
Raising money to help protect rainforests and forest peoples is easy and important. The Rainforest Foundation and Rainforest Action Network both have easy ways for you, your friends, and/or your classroom to raise critical funds that help forest peoples defend their rights to their traditional lands and to protect and preserve their natural resources.
5. End our addiction to fossil fuels.
It may not be readily obvious, but fossil fuels like coal and oil are a major threat to rainforests and rainforest communities alike. Oil extraction has increased dramatically in the Amazon, for instance, often with devastating social and environmental effects. The problem is not confined to the Amazon, however: A proposed pipeline for transporting oil from Canada's tar sands to refiners in the US would go right through the Great Bear Rainforest. Of course, once all that oil is burned it contributes to climate change. Coal is also a major part of the climate problem, contributing some 20% of annual greenhouse gas emissions. The US currently gets about half of its electricity from coal-fired power plants, earning it the title of "Climate Enemy #1."
Стр. 72, упр. 4 a)
Around the world, forests are being logged for timber and paper pulp and cleared to grow mono-crops like soy and palm oil while they are deteriorating from the impacts of global warming. Deforestation is a major driver of global warming, responsible for up to 20 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions-more than all the cars, trucks, planes, boats and trains in the world combined.
Deforestation doesn't just threaten our climate, it threatens the livelihoods of 1.6 Billion people that rely on forests for food and economic activity. Forests also serve as habitats to rare and undiscovered animal and plant species and play a key role in providing water and preventing flooding and erosion. If people had stopped cut down trees, more unique species of plants and animals would have survived.
Ending deforestation and protecting forests will not only preserve biodiversity and defend the rights of forest communities, it is also one of the quickest and cost effective ways of curbing global warming.